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The $26 Million Robot Arm: A 3D Printed Mass Production Success Story

In a remarkable tale of technological innovation and business success, the Dexter robot arm, born from a humble hundred thousand dollar Kickstarter campaign, soared to a staggering 26 million dollars in sales within just three years. Let's unfold the captivating story of Haddington Dynamics, the masterminds behind the Dexter robot arm, and how 3D printing played a pivotal role in this incredible journey.



Back in 2017, a Kickstarter emerged, offering a 3D printed robot arm available in kit form or fully assembled for a mere five thousand dollars. What set this robotic marvel apart was its ability to be printed using a standard desktop 3D printer of the time, a feat made possible by a group of ingenious engineers in Nevada. This Kickstarter gained significant attention, raising a total of $108,000.


The magic lay in the exceptional mechanical design that fortified 3D printed parts for the robot, but the true marvel was the advanced control system. Haddington Dynamics utilized an FPGA supercomputer of their own design, enabling the creation of a one-meter-long robot arm costing less than five thousand dollars, maintaining a precision of 50 microns—a thickness comparable to a human hair.


As time progressed, the Dexter robot arm evolved and improved, ultimately being sold for $11,000 per unit. In 2020, Haddington Dynamics was acquired by the Ocado Group, a British company renowned for its innovative use of robots in grocery delivery. This acquisition aimed to integrate the Dexter robot arm into Ocado's fulfillment centers, enhancing the picking process within their expansive warehouses filled with 3D printed robots—a fascinating story which we will feature on next weeks blog.


So, how did Haddington Dynamics achieve this phenomenal success in mass production 3d printing, and what role did 3D printing play? Initially, 3D printing was a fundamental aspect and a unique selling point. By selling kits and actual robots, Haddington Dynamics strategically appealed to both hobbyists and committed customers, amassing $108,000 in orders. Rather than establishing an in-house print farm, they collaborated with Slant 3D to produce the first large batches of Dexter robot arm pieces.


The advantages were two-fold: not only did they avoid insourcing production, but the flexibility afforded by 3D printing allowed for the creation of complex geometries impossible through traditional manufacturing methods. With 20 to 30 individual pieces for each robot arm, traditional molding would have incurred incredible costs and risks, making 3D printing the obvious choice.


Dexter's early arms were produced in PLA, known for its exceptional rigidity, which improved precision. Later, the robot arms were upgraded to carbon fiber nylon parts, enhancing both appearance and perceived quality. This adaptability was crucial as the Dexter evolved from a hobbyist project to a formal product.


Through the strategic use of 3D printing, Haddington Dynamics achieved rapid sales, avoided upfront capital expenditure, and continually improved their product. The result? A remarkable growth of 260 times in just three years—a rare feat in the world of successful Kickstarters turned thriving companies. The Dexter robot arm represents the transformative power of 3D printing, enabling startups to navigate the complexities of production, deliver products promptly, and grow into substantial enterprises. The question lingers—why isn't 3D printing utilized more often for products with such evident benefits? While the exact answer remains unknown, Haddington Dynamics' story stands as a testament to the unparalleled advantages of this manufacturing approach.

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